If you go to your character information screen (hit "C" should do it) one of the buttons to the right of your character portrait takes you to a list of all of the badges currently in the game. It will indicate how far you have progressed for badges you have not earned (43/50 Vampire Butterflies killed); it will also list any rewards you will receive, if any, when you earn the badge.
The only place that I am aware of is pirate101.centralforums.com. They have a lot of information about Pirate101. Trying to find it can be another problem. Usually there are icon buttons near the bottom of the screen to get information about different aspects of the game. They also have a forum that you can ask questions in and guides for you to use. I'm sure that the information about Badges would be there.