If an origin is specified for the equipment you are trying to equip it on, you have to match that origin to the ship to be able to equip it. If it doesn't match, you won't be able to equip the equipment.
Anchors, Cannons, Horns and Wheels usually have an origin of ANY and can be used on any ship you have. Armor, Figureheads, Rudders, and Sails usually specify a world origin and can only be used on a ship from that world.
The different origins refers to what world the ships come from. Each world has it's own style of ships. Certain parts of ships, if you tried to put them on a ship from a different world, it just wouldn't work or look right. If you tried to put armor from a sharp prowed Aquila Galleon on a wide prowed Monquistan galleon, it would look a bad mismatch.